Lichen purple

The first version of this bibliography was published in DHA 1996 vol. 15, with assistance from

Hayo de Boer, Michèle Dallon, Witold Nowik and Karen Diadick Casselman.

A Leeds Workman, Manufacture of Archil and Cudbear, Chemical News, 1874, 143
An anonymous letter to the Editor deplores the secrecy in the dye production trade and describes making Archil Liquor, Paste Archil, Cudbear and Blue Archil

Aguirre-Hudson B, Whitworth I and Spooner BM, J. M. Despréaux' lichens from the Canary Islands and West Africa: an account of a 19th century collection found in an English archive. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2011, 166(2), 185–211; doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2011.01140.x
This is an historical and descriptive account of 28 herbarium specimens, 27 lichens and an alga, found in the archives of Charles Chalcraft, a descendant of the Bedford family, who were dye manufacturers in Leeds, England, in the 19th century. Most of these species are known as a source of the purple dye orchil, which was used to dye silk and wool.

Beecken H, Gottschalk E-M, Gizycki U v, Krämer H, Maassen D, Matthies H-G, Musso H, Rathjen C and Záhorszky U I, Orcein und Lackmus, Angewandte Chemie, 1961, 73(20), 665-688
A summary of investigations into the structure of 14 components of orcein and the (polymeric) structure of litmus. 59 references

Beecken H, Gottschalk E-M, Gizycki U v, Krämer H, Maassen D, Matthies H-G, Musso H, Rathjen C and Záhorszky U I, Orcein und Lackmus, Biotechnic & Histochemistry, 2003, 78(6), 289-302
A translation into English of the 1961 Angewandte Chemie article

Berthollet C L and Berthollet A B, Elements of the Art of Dyeing and Bleaching, London: Thomas Tegg, 1841, 365-369
A chapter on Archil describes the manufacture from lichen roccella (Canaries) or lichen parellus (also called perelle from Auvergne) using urine and lime to give a product with an odour of violets; a solution of the dye in ethanol is used for filling spirit of wine thermometers, but the colour fades with time. 'The contact of air renews the colour, which is destroyed anew in vacuo in process of time'. The same lichen is used for turnsole (litmus); 'this preparation is made in Holland'

Berthollet C L, Elements of the Art of Dyeing, London : Stephen Couchman : sold by J. Johnson, 1791.,
"Translated from the French by William Hamilton, Of Archil, ch. VII, p 217-224, a description of various lichens and methods of dyeing using archil.-"Archil is a substance of great use in dyeing : but as it is rich in colour, and communicates a seducing bloom, dyers are frequently tempted to make an improper use of it, and to go beyond those proportions which would add to the beauty of colours, without any great injury to their permanency."

Bolton E M, Lichens for Vegetable Dyeing, London: Studio Books, Longacre Press Ltd, 1960,
Reprinted 1972

Bolton E M, Lichens for Vegetable Dyeing, London: Studio Vista Publishers and Oregon: Robin and Russ Handweavers, McMinnville, 1972,
A little (60 page) book describing lichens and dyes, including recipes, with 5 of the authors' watercolours and a picture of 21 samples of dyed fleece. Described for the first time is the production of a blue dye from Xanthoria parientia, in which the colour is developed in sunlight

Brightman F H and Laundon J R, Alternatives to lichen dyes, London:British Lichen Society, 1985,
A two page leaflet from the British Lichen Society (London) describes lichens used to produce the dyes orchil and cudbear which contain orcein and the indicator, litmus. Illustrations of the orchil lichen are reproduced from Dillenius's Historia Muscorum tab. XVII Fig. 39 (1742)

Brough S, Navajo Lichen Dyes, Lichenologist, 1988, 20(3), 279-290

Brunello F, The art of dyeing in the history of mankind, Vicenza:N. Pozza, 1973,
Numbers in parentheses are page numbers. Archil (Roccella tinctoria) was in common use in classical times (26), especially in the Greek islands of Amorgos (93) and is mentioned by Dioscoridis, Pliny and Celsus (96). The histories of the Papyrus Leydensis and Papyrus Holmiensis are related (97) and the dyeing using woad then archil to obtain a violet tone on a blue base discussed (99). The first recipe (no. 32) in Papyrus Holmiensis for an imitation purple using sasfflower (sic) and archil is reproduced (plate 57). There is speculation that the Roman garments vestes fucatae could have used archil (Greek: phikos, Latin: fucus)(108). The dye was forgotten during Medieval times and reintroduced about 1300 to artisans in Florence by Federigo from the Levant (132). Tornexel (archil) is mentioned in Plictho de l'arte de Tentori ..., G. Rosetti, Venice, 1540 (191) and a chapter in Nuovo Plico d'ogni de tincture by G. Tallier, Venice, 1704 has the title 'To make an archil dye which dyes everything brown' (207). Hellot, L'Art de la teinture des laines ..., 1750, quotes Rosetti's Plictho, reproducing the formula, and quotes from 'a fine description of this process' in Novum plantarum genera, P A Micheli, Florence, 1729, where it is called 'raspa' (230). In the dictionary section of the book there is a description of dyeing lichens (350) and their location and an entry under Roccella tinctoria (383), with drawings of Lecanora tartarea and Lecidea geografica (plate 54).

Calvert F C, Dyeing and Calico Printing, London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co, 1876,
A recipe for the preparation of French Purple, a fast orchil dye, is given (Kok,1966, pp262)

Cardon D, Le monde des teintures naturelles, Belin, Paris, 2003, 371-417
A summary of the history and chemistry of lichen purple dyes

Cardon D, Natural Dyes : Sources, Tradition, Technology and Science, Archetype Publications, 2007, 485-513
A translation of Le monde des teintures naturelles (2003) updated

Cardon D and du Chatenet G, Guide des teintures naturelles, Paris: Delachaux and Niestle, 1990, 303-335
A summary of the history and chemistry of orcein (l'orseille) and litmus (le tournesol) with 34 references and illustrations of Rocella tinctoria, R. phycopsis, R. fuciformis,Ochrolechia tartarea, O. parella, Pertusaria dealbescens, Parmelia glabratula sbsp. fuliginosa and Lasallia pustulata

Casselman K L, Craft of the dyer : colour from plants and lichens, New York: Dover Publications Inc, 1993, 164-173
First published by University of Toronto Press,1980, mainly about dyeing in Canada and Northeastern States, with recipies for using Parmelia and Umbilicaria ('orchil') lichens and a mixture of Actinogyra muechlenbergii, Lasallia papulosa and Umbilicaria ('orsallia') lichens by 4-12 weeks fermentation with ammonia followed by dyeing for 2 days - several months. There are illustrations of Umbilicaria lichens, with dyeing results, and an extensive bibliography

Casselman K L, Lichens: orseille de l'herbe, The Herbarist, 1994, 60, 42-49
The history, uses and folklore of lichens, including those used as purple and brown dyes. Several documentary sources quoted

Casselman K L, Lichen dyes. a source book, Cheverie, N.S.. Studio Vista., 1996,
57p ISBN: 0968102107. m

Casselman K L, The Etymology and Botany of Some European Lichen Dyes, Dyes in History and Archaeology, 2002, 18, 31-36
A survey of purple dye lichen names with 31 references

de Claubry G, Sur la preparation de l'orseille, Comptes rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, 1861, 52, 1252-1254
A procedure is described for extracting precursors from the lichen with calcium hydroxide followed by acidification and treatment with ammonia to give the dye

Clow A and Clow N L, The Chemical Revolution. A Contribution to Social Technology, London: The Batchworth Press, 1952, 209-214
A very detailed history of cudbear manufacture

Cocq M, Memoire sur la fabrication et l'emploi de l'orseille, Annales de chimie, 1812, Paris(81), 258-278
Preparation of La parelle d'Auvergne from Ochrolechia parelle, O. tartarea, Diploschistes scruposus, Pertusaria sp. (Kok, 1966; Cardon & du Chatenet, 1990), illustrations of the tools used for lichen collection (Tievant, 1979)

Cooksey C J, Dronsfield A T and Brown T M, Orchil and litmus - the first synthetic dyes ?, Education in Chemistry, 2001, 38(6), 151-153

Cooksey C J, Lichen purple - an annotated bibliography, Biotechnic & Histochemistry, 2003, 78(6), 313-320; DOI:10.1080/10520290410001697931
This bibliography lists and contains comments on publications describing the textile dyeing applications and organic chemistry of purple dyes derived from lichens. 110 refs.

Dallon M, Orchil of Auvergne, Dyes in History and Archaeology, 1997, 15, 97-102
A survey with 16 refs of the history, with harvesting and preparation examples, especially in the Saint Flour area

Dambourney L A, Recueil de procédés et d'expériences sur les teintures solides : que nos végétaux indigênes communiquent aux laines & aux lainages, , 1794,
18th century details of improving fastness using silver birch bark (Cardon & du Chatenet,1990, p317)

Dambourney L A, Histoire des Plantes qui Servant a la Teinture, Paris, 1794, 167
After dyeing woolen cloth with orchil, the fastness is improved by treatment in a bath of vinegar or of cold water and oil of vitriol

Diderot, La grande encyclopedie, , 1788, ?484-666?
lichen de Grece' (lichen graceus, lichen polypoides, lichen tinctorius), found on Mediterranean coasts and used for dyeing is described; orchil of the sea and orchil of the earch are described. The use of a solution of tin 'par l'esprit de nitre regalise' to make the colour faster, in the same way as for cochineal, is mentioned, but the colour is affected. The use of orchil for dyeing marble red and blue is mentioned

Dorvault, L'officine, ou repertoire general de pharmacie pratique, , 1889, 623
In one paragraph, the use of lichens is described to obtain brown, yellow, purple and blue colours. Rocella and Variolaria species are mentioned and the colour precursors, lecanorine, erythrine and orceine. The blue lacmus is obtained from Lecanora tartarea.

Dubois M l'Abbe, Essai sur les plantes tinctoriales de l'Auvergne, Annales scientifiques de l'Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, 1833,
A large number of species of lichen are tested and examples are given of the different ways of dyeing using different species, soda, lime, urine. There is much detail about lichen tartareux, the orchil of Auvergne, and the economy linked with this lichen

Dumas J, Neue Beobachtungen über das Orcin, Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie, 1838, 27, 140-147

Dumas J B, Traite de Chimie appliquee aux arts, Paris, 1844, 8, 40-45
Le tournesol en drapeaux is extracted from Croton tinctorium (Chrozophora tinctoria) and was long used for colouring the crust of cheese in Holland. Le tournesol en pain (litmus) is prepared from various lichens by maceration with urine, adding 1/20 of its weight of chalk and alum for a month. The colouring components can be separated to give ether soluble erythroleine, alcohol soluble erythrolitmine and water soluble azolitmine.

Dumas J B, Traite de Chimie appliquee aux arts, Paris, 1844, 8, 45-56
Orseille is best prepared from lichen roccella, principally from the Canary Is or Cape Verde or from Variolaria dealbata and lichen Corrallinus from the rocks of the Auvergne and the Pyrenees. It was known to Pliny and was rediscovered by Frederigo in the 14th century. L'orseille was obtained as a paste or more recently, Persio, which is dried. Cutbear is a red powder prepared from lichen Tartareus. Dyeing without a mordant, a crimson colour is obtained, with alum and tartar, red, tartar alone, deep red, and with alkalis, violet. For dyeing it is often combined with indigo, madder or cochineal.

Dumas J B, Précis de l'art de la teinture Paris, 1846, pp. 45-56
see Dumas 1844.

Edge A, British dye lichens, Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists, 1914, 30, 186-188

Engle R L and Dempsey E W, The separation of orcein into four fractions by chromatography and the staining qualities of each fraction, J. Histochem. Cytochem., 1954, 2, 9-20
Separations were achieved using paper chromatography as well as alumina columns. Visible absorption spectra are reported. Each of the four fractions had very different staining characteristics on tissue sections, and only the blue-purple fraction stained elastic fibers

Ellis R, Official Descriptive and Illustrated Catalogue of the Great Exhibition of 1851, London Great exhibition of the works of industry of all nations London: Spicer brothers, 1851, 177
The exhibition of specimens of lichens and archil obtained from them by several companies is described

Engle R L and Dempsey E W, The separation of orcein into four fractions by chromatography and the staining qualities of each fraction, J. Histochem. Cytochem., 1954, 2, 9-20
Separations were achieved using paper chromatography as well as alumina columns. Visible absorption spectra are reported. Each of the four fractions had very different staining characteristics on tissue sections, and only the blue-purple fraction stained elastic fibers

Francis W, Improvements in Manufacturing Orchil and Cudbear, Chemical Gazette, 1850, 8, 200
Patent granted to James Robinson for Improvements in Manufacturing Orchil and Cudbear. The first part of this invention consists in causing the paste, prepared in the ordinary manner, to be forced through small openings or orifices, of any required form, into vessels or receivers, whereby the air will be enabled to act upon the paste with greater effect, and the time occupied in the manufacture will therefore be considerably shortened. The second part of the invention consists in a mode of drying paste-orchil for the purpose of converting it into cudbear. The patentee takes orchil-paste prepared in the ordinary way, and passes it through a machine of a similar character to that above mentioned, permitting it to fall lightly on to a suitable surface, for the purpose of drying ; when dry it will be fit to be ground as usual.

Girardin J, Leçons de chimie élémentaire appliquée aux arts industriels Paris: V. Masson, 1861, 551-552
The recipe for French Purple of Guinon, Marnas and Bonnet is given

Gettens J R and Stout G L, Painting materials. A short encyclopaedia, New York: Dover Publications, 1966, 125
Litmus is obtained from Lecanora tartarea or Roccella tinctoria, and archil is similar although obtained from other species

Gonfreville D, Art de la teinture des laines : en toison, en fil et en tissu, Paris : E. Lacroix, 1848, 535-537
Mention is made of Rocella, Variolaria, lichen Corallinus (pertusaria corallina), lichen Tartareus and a recipe for obtaining orcine; the colour precursors, lecanorine, orceine and orcine are described. The use of mordants with orchil to obtain different colours is described as is the use of lichen dyes in a first dyeing bath ('bottoming')

Goodwin J, A Dyer's Manual, London: Pelham Books, 1982, 87-92
A chapter on lichen dyes gives brief descriptions of the habitat and use of Ochrolechia (Leconora) tartarea, Parmelia saxatilis and Rocella tinctoria

Gordon G and Gordon C, Manufacture of Dye Colours, British patent 727, 1758,
The production of Cudbear is described from a mixture of Archelia or Spanish Weed, muscus rupibus admiscens or coroloides and muscus pyxidatus, spirit of urine, spirit of soot and quick lime. 'Digest them together for fourteen days, and they will produce the cudbear fitt for dyers' use'

Gordon G, Memorial of Mr. Cuthbert Gordon, relative to the discovery and use of cudbear, and other dying wares, Journals of the House of Commons, 1786, 41, 305
25 pages

Gottschalk E-M, , Diplomarbeit: Univ Gottingen, 1961,

Grierson S, The colour cauldron: the history and use of natural dyes in Scotland, Perth: Mill Books, ISBN 0 9510132 11, 1986,
A history of harvesting and processing cudbear and a survey of orchil lichen species with recipes

Guinon, Marnas and Bonnet, Expose historique des travaux relatif aux materieres colourantes des lichens, Paris, 1856?,
A commercial method for making solid orseille called 'Pourpre Francaise' (Cardon & du Chatenet,1990, p317). See Girardin (1861)

Hale M E, The biology of lichens, London: Edward Arnold, 1974, 161-162
A very short summary about the use of orchil lichens refering to Bolton (1960,1972) and Solberg and a little chemistry

Halleux R, Les alchimistes grecs, Paris : Les Belles Lettres, 1981,
The Greek text of these 3rd century papyri found in a Theban tomb in 1828 is given and translated into French with many footnotes; of the 70 dye recipes, many are for imitation mollusc purple and one includes a woad + lichen purple recipe

Harley R D, Artists' Pigments c. 1600-1835, London: Butterworth Scientific, 1982, 63
2nd edition. A one page summary on Orchil, Cork and Litmus with 4 refs (1612-1674)

Hellot J P, The Art of Dyeing Wool and Silk and Cotton, London: Scott, Greenwood & Co, 1901, Reprint of the edition published: London : R. Baldwin, 1789,
see Hellot, J P (1750)

Hellot J P, L'Art de la teinture des laines et des etoffes de laine en grand et petit teint, Paris: La veuve Pissot, 1750, (chapter 3), 541-563
A recipe for the preparation of orchil from 'Orselle of the Levant' (Kok,1966, pp261). The use of tin as a mordant to give a red 'demi-ecarlate' (Cardon & du Chatenet,1990, pp317)

Henrich F and Herold W, Zur Kenntuis orcein-artiger Farbstoffe, Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 1928, 61, 767-770

Henrich F and Herold W, Zur Kenntuis orcein-artiger Farbstoffe (II. Mitteil.), Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 1928, 61, 2343-2349

Henrich F and Meyer W, , Farben- u. Textil-Chemie, 1902, 1, 595

Herzig J and Wenzel F, , Monatsch Chemie, 1903, 24, 881

Hesse O, Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Flechten und ihrer Characteristichen Bestandtheile, 1, Journal fur praktische Chemie, 1897, 57, 232-318

Hesse O, Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Flechten und ihrer Characteristichen Bestandtheile, 2, Journal fur praktische Chemie, 1897, 57, 409-447

Hesse O, Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Flechten und ihrer Characteristichen Bestandtheile, 3, Journal fur praktische Chemie, 1898, 58, 465-561

Hesse O, Ueber einige Flechtenstoffe, Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie, 1861, 117, 297-351

Hofenk-de Graaff J H, Natural dyestuffs - origin, chemical constitution, identification, Amsterdam: ICOM (International Council of Museums), 1969,
Plenary meeting 15-19 September 1969 Amsterdam. A brief history from ancient Rome, where the main use may have been as a ground colour before dyeing with Tyrian purple, and the later use in Holland, France and Scotland. Although not usually mordanted, silk can be dyed red using alum + gallnuts, followed by warm wine vinegar. Infrared spectra and TLC details (Figs 32, 33) are given for orchil and orcein

Hopf H, Über Hans Musso (1925-1988) und sein wissenschaftliches Werk, Chemische Berichte, 1992, 125, I-XXIV
A summary of the 221 papers published by Hans Musso, including about 25 on orcein

Hoiland K, Laven korkje, Ochrolechia tartarea, som fargeprodusent. Med spesiell omtale av bruken på Lista og i Farsund., Blyttia, 1983, 41(1), 17-21
The lichen Cork (korkje), Ochrolechia tartarea, as dye-stuff producer,with a special mention of the use on Lista and in Farsund. Details are given of the history in Norway since 1316, the chemistry of the colour production and the trade in the 18th century centred around Flekkefjord. Illustrations are given of wool dyed with cork, lichen-picks and the lichen. 11 references

Hunt R, Ure's Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines, London: Longmans, Green, and Co, 1875, 1, 203-207
Article: Archil. History, production and use

Hunt R, Ure's Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines, London: Longmans, Green, and Co, 1875, 1, 1013
Article: Cudbear. The name derives from Dr Cuthbert Gordon and "it was originally manufactured on a great scale by Mr G Mackintosh, at Glasgow, nearly 80 years ago"

Hunt R, Ure's Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines, London: Longmans, Green, and Co, 1875, 3, 135
Article: Litmus. A brief description of the manufacture in Holland

Hunzinger C & F and Tievant P, De toutes les couleurs, Stock, 1976, 181-197
A general chapter about lichen dyeing with specific reference to Lecanora tartarea, Lecanora parella and Evernia prunastri

Johnson W T (ed.), Cudbear dye : and its discovery by Cuthbert Gordon (1730-1810), Livingston : Officina, 1995, 16pp
A collection of quotations from contemporary documents with 24 refs

Johnson W T (ed.), Scottish Dyes and Dyers, Chapter 7, Cudbear dye : and its discovery by Cuthbert Gordon (1730-1810), Livingston : Officina, 2004, 21pp
A revised and expanded version of the 1995 publication

Kane R, Beiträge zur chemischen Geschichte der Orseille und des Lacmus, Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie, 1841, 39, 25-76

Kane R, Contributions to the Chemical History of Archil and Litmus, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 1840, 130, 273-324
A summary of archil and litmus in 1840. A summary appears in "Abstracts or The Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London", vol 4 (1837 - 1843 inclusive), pp 233-234

Kane R, Elements of Chemistry, Theoretical and Practical, &c, 2nd ed. 1849, Dublin: Hodges and Smith, pp. 940-944
In a section "Of the Colouring Matters derived from Lichens" the author describes his researches and those of Dumas, Schunck and Stenhouse

Karmous T, Ayed N, Nowik W, Caractérisation par chromatographie des lichens tinctoriaux de Tunisie, Analusis, 1997, 25, 321-329
Using TLC and HPLC, 20 depside-type precursors and 6 other pigments have been identified in 26 species of lichen in Tunisia

Knecht E, Rawson C and Loewenthal R, A Manual of dyeing: for the use of practical dyers, manufacturers, students, and all those interested in the art of dyeing. 2nd ed, vol 1, London: Charles Griffin and Company Limited, 1910, 363-365
First published in 1893, 9th edition 1945. A section on Orchil and Cudbear describes the manufacture of orchil from Roccella tinctoria (Valparaiso weed), R. fuciformia (Lima weed), Variolaria orcina (from Auvergue) or Lecanora tinctoria (from Sweden) by fermentation with urine and subsequent addition of slaked lime or by fermentation with dilute ammonia at 35-45 deg C for 5-6 days. Cudbear is usually made from L. tartarea. Wool is dyed without a mordant and is frequently used for 'bottoming' indigo

Kok A, A short History of the Orchil Dyes, Lichenologist, 1966, 3, 248-272
A complete historical review with 68 references and a further 11 of more general interest. In a section on the history of lichen purple, the early use in combination with and as a substitute for shellfish purple was mentioned by Theophrastus, Pliny the Elder and in the Stockholm Papyrus and was a possible constituent of Gaetulian purple. The domestic use probably continued until the re-establishment of commercial trade by Federigo, ca. 1300. The expansion of the use continued in the 16th and 17th centuries with mention by Roseto (1540), Guicciardini (1560), Imperato (1599), Ray (1686) and Pitton de Tournefort (1717). In the 18th century, some amounts and prices are given for lichen from the Cape Verde Islands and the Canaries. Much detail is given on the perelle industry in France and the cudbear industry in Scotland. In the 19th century, more sources were located in Ceylon, Mozambique, Peru, Madagascar and Zanzibar, and in the second half of the 20th century, the major sources were the Cape Verde Islands and Madagascar. In a section on the preparation of dyes, recipes are quoted for orchil, French Purple, Parelle, Cudbear and Litmus. In a final section, the dyeing of silk and wool with orchil alone and with other dyes is given in detail.

Le Pilleur D'Appligny, Essai sur la teinture, , 1770, 129-135
The fugitive nature of orchil dyes is described with experiments directed towards greater light fastness

Leggett W F, Ancient and Medieval Dyes, Brooklyn: Chemical Publishing Co Inc, 1944, 56-60
A brief history of orseille, with mention of Theophrastus and Dioscorides, Pliny (use as a ground for Tyrian purple), Federigo (1300). Florence was the main source proir to that of the Canary Is (1703). Norway and the Mediterranean islands are a source of Roccella fuciformis and Variolaria orcina. Attempts have been made to develop an industry in Lower California

Leuchs J C, Traité complet des propriétés, de la préparation et de l'emploi des matières tinctoriales et des couleurs, Paris: De Malher, 1829, 399-415
A survey of many (73) species of lichen and their ability to yield a red colour. The recipe of P Vestring of Stockholm using lime and ammonia to obtain red or violet colours is described, with other processes using salt, salpetre, ammonia, urine, copper sulfate. The orchil lichens described are lichen tartareus, variolaria orcina, lichen calcareus, rocella, lichen farineux, lichen lacteus

Liebermann C, Ueber die Einwirkung der salpetriger säure auf Phenole, Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 1874, 7, 247-250

Liebermann C, Ueber Orceïn, Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 1875, 8, 1649-1651

Lindsay W L, Experiments on the Dyeing Properties of Lichens, The Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, 1854, 57, 228-49 and 385-401
see Mairet(1931), Tievant (1979)

Lindsay W L, The Dyeing Properties of Lichens, The Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, 1855, new series 2, 385
see Mairet(1931), Tievant (1979)

Lindsay W L, A popular history of British lichens : comprising an account of their structure, reproduction, uses, distribution and classification, London : Lovell Reeve, 1856,

Lindsay W L, On the present uses of lichens as dye-stuffs : &c, Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science for 1867, 1867,
11 pages; full title: On the present uses of lichens as dye-stuffs : On the gold-fields of Scotland ; On the conservation of forests in our colonies ; Is lichen-growth detrimental to forest and fruit trees? ; On plant-acclimatization in Scotland, with special reference to Tussac grass ; To what extent is lichen-growth a test of age? ; On polymorphism in the fructification of lichens

Llano G A, Economic uses of lichens, Washington:, 1956, 32-37
The current use of lichens for dyeing in the West and N. Europe is mentioned. There is a short history of the use of lichens for purple dyeing from the 13th century onwards, with a chart showing the geographical origin of commercially used lichens, classified into two groups: orchil of the earth and orchil of the sea. Recipes are given for orchil paste, orchil cake, orchil liquor and the recipe of Cocq (1813)

de Luynes V, Sur les principes contenus dans les lichens a orseille, Lecons de chimie professees de 1860 a 1869 inclus Societe chimique de Paris, 1861-1870, 5, 431-456
26 May 1865. The isolation of erythrine, lecanoric acid and orcinol from lichens and their reactions

de Luynes V, Sur la preparation industrielle de l'orcine, Bulletin de la Societe d'Encouragement, 1863, 270-275

Mairet E M, Vegetable dyes, being a book of recipes and other information useful to the dyer (5th edition), Sussex: St Dominic's Press, Ditchling, Hassocks, 1931,
This little book was first published in 1916, 5th ed. in 1931 and another in 1939. In a chapter on lichen dyes, the processing of Lecanora tartarea in Scotland is described - ' ... is steeped in stale urine for about 3 weeks, wrapped in dock leaves and hung up to dry in peat smoke'. A general method of processing lichens is quoted from 'Experiments on Lichens for Dyeing Wools and Silks' by Dr Westring of Sweden. The use of stale urine and slaked lime for Orchil and Cudbear (from L. tartarea or Urceolaria calcarea in Scotland) is mentioned and purple colours obtainable from Evernia prunastri, U. pustulata and Parmelia perlata. A recipe is given for red-purple dyeing of wool using equal amounts of cudbear and logwood. A list of lichens 'used by the peasantry of different countries for wool dyeing' is reproduced from 'The Dyeing Properties of Lichens' by Dr Lauder Lindsay, Lecanora pallescens, Umbelicaria Vellea, The Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, July to October, 1855

Mayer R, A dictionary of art terms and techniques, New York:Thomas Y, Crowell Company, 1969, 19

McGrath J W, Dyes from lichens & plants, Toronto ; London [etc.] :Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1977,
Based on 6 years' experience of craft dyeing at Spence Bay in the Canadian Arctic, this book describes 63 plant species (including 22 lichens) with botanical details, including Inuit name and recipes for dyeing. Purple/blue producers are Alectoria ochrileuca, Cetraria delisei,Haematomma lapponicum, Umbilicaria vellea and Xanthoria elegans, the last of which only gives a blue colour on exposure to sunlight. The lichens are illustrated in colour with examples of dyeing results, some with unusual substrates like wolf fur and polar bear fur

McOmie J F W and White I M, Experiments concerning the Structure of a constituent of Orcein, Journal of the Chemical Society (London), 1955, 2619-2623
The structure of purple compounds isolated from the reaction of air and ammonia on orcinol suggested by Liebermann (Ber., 1875, 8, 1649) or Henrich (Sitzungsber. physik.-med. Soz. Erlangen, 1939, 71, 199) are shown to be more likely of the oxazine type than the suggested indophenol type

Musso H, Zur Kenntuis der Orseille-Farbstoffe, Naturwissenschaften, 1955, 42, 513
Ring paper chromatography of orcein eluting with 0.5M phosphate buffer at pH 11.0 in butanol or column chromatography using cellulose - butanol - 0.5M phosphate buffer at pH 11.75 separates 13 coloured components

Musso H, Die Trennung des Orceins in seine Komponenten (II. Mitteil uber Orceinfarbstoffe), Chemische Berichte, 1956, 89, 1659-1673
Following a brief history of orcein from 1835 (H Robiquet) onwards, paper chromatography and cellulose powder chromatography are used to separate 14 components, of which 5 are obtained as crystalline compounds. Spectral data is given in methanol, 0.2N HCl, 0.2N NH3, 0.2N KOH

Musso H, Orcein and litmus pigments: constitutional elucidation and constitutional proof by synthesis, Planta Medica, 1960, 8, 431-446
A summary of previously published material by Musso

Musso H and Beecken H, Uber Orceinfarbstoffe. IV. Craig-Verteilung und Verteilungschromatographie, Chemische Berichte, 1957, 90, 1808-1814
The major components of orcein were separated using cellulose powder chromatography with formamide - chloroform - pyridine for a-amino-orcein and butanol - phosphate buffer for other amino and hydroxyorceins

Musso H and Beecken H, Uber Orceinfarbstoffe. VI. Die Konstitution von α-, β- and γ-Amino-orcein, Chemische Berichte, 1957, 90, 2190-2194
Electronic spectra of the title compounds and their acetates are given in methanol, 0.2N HCl/methanol and 0.2N HCl/methanol

Musso H and Beecken H, Uber Orceinfarbstoffe. XII. Synthesen des α-Oxy-orceins, Chemische Berichte, 1961, 94, 585-600
The synthesis is achieved in about 1% yield

Musso H and Kramer H, Uber Orceinfarbstoffe. VIII. Die Konstitution der Oxy-orceine und ihrer Oxydationsprodukte, Chemische Berichte, 1958, 91, 2001-2016
IR and visible spectral data are given and the acetates and leucoacetates prepared and characterised

Musso H and Mannsfeld S-P, Uber Orceinfarbstoffe. XIII. Synthese und Acetylierungseschwindigkeit des Iso-α-amino-orceins, Chemische Berichte, 1961, 94, 2585-2589
The synthesis is used to support the proposed structure of α-amino-orcein

Musso H and Matthies H-G, Uber Orceinfarbstoffe. V. IR- und UV-spektren. Hydroxy und Amino-substituierter Phenoxazone., Chemische Berichte, 1957, 90, 1814-1827
IR and UV data is given for α-, β- and γ-hydroxy- and amino-orceins and γ-amino-orceimine

Musso H and Rajtjen C, Uber Orceinfarbstoffe. X. Lichtabsorption und Chromophor des Lackmus, Chemische Berichte, 1959, 92, 751-753
Visible region spectral data are given for α-, β- and γ-hydroxyorceins and litmus

Musso H, Matthies H-G, Beecken H and Kramer H, Zur Konstitution der Orceinfarbstoffe (part III of Uber Orceinfarbstoffe), Angewandte Chemie, 1957, 69(5), 178
The Rf and structure of 12 the components of orcein separated by cellulose powder chromatography using butanol - phosphate buffer pH 11.75 are given

Musso H, Matthies H-G, Kramer H and Hocks P, Uber Orceinfarbstoffe. XI. Die Constitution der Amino-orceinimine, Chemische Berichte, 1960, 93, 1782-1788
pK and redox potentials are determined for orcein components and phenoxazone models

Musso H, Matthies H-G, Kramer H and Hocks P, Uber Orceinfarbstoffe. XI. Die Constitution der Amino-orceinimine, Chemische Berichte, 1960, 93, 1782-1788
pK and redox potentials are determined for orcein components and phenoxazone models

Partridge W, A practical treatise on dying of woolen, cotton, and skein silk with the manufacture of broadcloth and cassimere, including the most improved methods in the West of England. Facsimile reprint of: 1st ed., New York: H. Wallis, 1823, Eddington: Pasold Research Fund Ltd, 1973, 164-205
A reprint with an introduction by J. de L. Mann and technical notes by K. G. Ponting of a book originally published in New York in 1823. A brief recipe for dyeing silk with cudbear to give a mazarine blue

Pavolini T, , Atti Congr. naz. Chim. pura appl., 1933, 4, 557

Perez-Llano G A, Lichens, their biological and economic significance, The Botanical Review, 1944, 10(1), 1-65
Orchil was known to Theophrastus and Pliny, but the art to make dyes from Roccellae fell into disuse until the 17th and 18th centuries, being rediscovered by Federigo about 1300. Various sources of Rocella tinctoria are mentioned (no dates), starting with the Cape Verde Islands and the Canaries and ending with Valparaiso, Lima and the West Coast of North America. A few prices and amounts are mentioned. A recipe for orchil is taken from Knecht, Rawson & Loewenthal (1919) and for perelle as observed at Clermont, France, from Cocq (1812), quoted in Brewer's Edinburgh Encyclopaedia (1832). Mention is made of the use of Ochrolechia tinctoria in Scotland, Iceland, Westmoreland and Cumberland, and the use of orchil with other dyes, magenta, indigo and the dye from lungwort for a permanent black (J M Matthews: Application of dyestuffs, 1920) and as a ground for madder reds, and in the manufacture of litmus in Holland. A table contains 75 species of lichen (18 producing blue or purple) with region found and uses. A total of 233 references.

Perkin AG and Everest AE, The natural organic colouring matters Longmans, Green and Co., 1918, pp. 529-566
Chapter XVI, Lichens, Lichen Acids, and Colouring Matters derived therefrom describes on twelve pages, the chemical components of lichens listed by species. Orsellinic acid, Lecanoric acid, Evernic acid and Everninic acid, Ramalic acid, Erythrin, Atranorin and Barbatic acid are described in detail, followed by sections on Archil or orchil. According to Zulkowski and Peters (Monatsh. 11, 227) red orcein is formed according to the equation: 4C7H8O2 + 2NH3 + 6O = C28H24N2O7 + 7H2O. Finally several pages are devoted to litmus.

Perkins P, Ecology, Beauty, Profits: Trade in Lichen-based Dyestuffs through Western History, Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists, 1986, 102, 221-227
Drawing heavily on A Kok's review (1966), the author covers the use in antiquity, in combination with mollusc purples, originally centred at Tyre ca. 1500 BC and spreading to the Canaries and Azores. Other sources were the Amorgos Islands and Thera and Itanos in Crete, mentioned by Theophrastus (Enquiry into Plants, IV.IV.5, about 320 BC). The contributions of Pliny are summarised, including Gaetulian purple, an industry established by King Juba of Mauritania about 40 BC, mysteriously dying out about the 4th century AD. After the Dark Ages documentation reappears in the 13th century in Florence, with trade spreading to Genoa and Venice. Lichen supplies about this time were from Majorca (1380) and the Red Sea (1400), and later (1500-1560) from the Canaries. During the 1600's new sources were found in South America, Morocco, Madiera, the Azores, Sardinia, Angola and Madagascar. In the 1700's, supplies from the Cape Verde Islands became important and local sources, of perelle in France and cudbear in Scotland, documented. About 1837, the importance of the Cape Verde Islands declined following discoveries in Angola and Mozambique, and 30 years later, Ceylon, Peru, Baja California, Zanzibar, Corsica, Sardinia and the Greek islands were added to the list. There are 5 citations about the brief exports from Baja California, 1872-1900. Data is presented on the price and amount of lichen produced at different times. The review emphasises the repeated 'discovery - use - depletion' cycle. 40 references

Ploss E E, Ein Buch von alten Farben, Heidelberg and Berlin:Impuls Verlag Heinz Moos, 1962,
Technologie der Textilfarben im Mittelalter mit einem Ausblick auf die festen Farben. Recipe 32 from Papyrus Graecus Holmiensis using safflower and orseille is described (pp25) and the original MS reproduced (pp36)

Pritchard F, Late Saxon Textiles from the City of London, Medieval Archaeology, 1984, 28, 46-76
In late Saxon textiles from the City of London, an unidentified lichen purple was observed but not confirmed

Rajtjen C, , Diplomarbeit: Univ Gottingen, 1959,
chromatography of litmus

Robiquet H, Neue Beobachtungen über das Orcin, Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie, 1835, 15, 289-300

Robiquet H, Essai analytique des lichens de l'orseille, Annales scientifique de l'Auvergne, 1830, 337-341
Following a survey of the species of orchil lichens and methods of collecting them, details of the isolation of orcine from variolaria dealbata are given

Robiquet H, Essai analytique des lichens de l'orseille, Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 1829, 42, 236-257
The first report of the isolation of orcinol from Variolaria dealbata (Pertusaria dealbescens)

Robiquet H, Nouvelles Observations sur l'Orcine, Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 1835, 58, 320-335

Roret, Origine des materieres tinctoriales, 1898, 252-255
In one chapter about Orseille the author describes how to recognise the orchil lichen and different ways to obtain the dye. The recipe from Cocq (1812) for preparing orchil is given

Rosi F, Clementi C, Paolantoni M, Romani A, Pellegrino,R, Brunetti BG, Nowik W and Miliani C, Study of Raman scattering and luminescence properties of orchil dye for its nondestructive identification on artworks., Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 2013
doi: 10.1002/jrs.4254
Ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) fluorescence and subtracted shifted Raman spectroscopy (SSRS) have exploited to identify orchil in a fragment from the ninth century Bible de Théodulphe and a parchment fragment sampled from a 16th century map of Auvergne. Orchil is a complex mixture of different coloured compounds, and they all share a common structure resulting from phenoxazone with a number of different substituents.

Rutty J, An Essay towards a Natural History of the County of Dublin, Dublin, 1772, 138-140
One chapter of the book is devoted to 'Indigenous Vegetables useful in dying and painting', reprinted and published by the Department of Continuing Education, University of Bristol,1990, and describes Cork, Corker or Arcel. ' the Co. of Kerry they steep it in stale urine, and make it up into balls with lime'

Schunck E, On some of the substances contained in the Lichens employed for the preparations of Archil and Cudbear, Chemical Society Memoirs, 1842, 1, 71-77
Investigating lichens (Lecanora, Urceolaria, Variolaria) from basalt rocks in the Vogelsberg in Upper Silesia, he isolated lecanorin and pseudoerythrin

Schunck E, Vorläufige Notiz über einige farbstoffgebende Substanzen der Flechten, Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie, 1842, 41, 157-162

Schunck E, Ueber die Bestandtheile der Lecanora Parella, Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie, 1845, 54, 257-284

Schunck E, Ueber die in Rocella tinctoria enthalteren Stoffe, Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie, 1847, 61, 64-80

Schützenberger P, Traité des matières colorantes, comprenant leurs applications à la teinture et à l'impression, et des notices sur les fibres textiles, et l'épaississants, les mordants, Paris, 1867, vol 2, 366-401
A chapter about lichen dyes

Schweppe H, Handbuch der Naturfarbstoffe Vorkommen - Verwendung - Nachweis, Landsberg/Lech:Ecomed, 1993, 517-534
A comprehensive coverage of lichen purple including (page numbers) an historical summary (530), reference to Papyrus Holmiensis (25, 53, 56, 310), Pliny's Historia naturalis (52, 56), Theophastus's Geschlichte der Pflanzen, IV.Buch, Kapitel 6,5 (53), the finds at Vindolanda (58, 67), Plictho (82, 84) and Colbert (89). In the 18th century, orseilla (orchil) from Rocella tinctoria was obtained from Crete and the Greek islands and persio (cudbear) from Lecanora species was obtained from Scotland and Scandanavia. Orseille is used on silk to obtain a violet colour (140) and on parchment (318). The constitution and structures of dyes and precursors is covered (517), recipes for persio (cudbear), Franzosischer Purpur (pourpre francais) and lackmus (litmus) are given (528). Different colours are obtained with mordants, Al, Cu, Fe, Mg, Zn (530) and 3 pictures of examples of aluminium mordanted wool dyeing are given (569). Qualitative analysis is by dithionite reduction and oxidation to regenerate the colour (no regeneration with azo dyes and shellfish purple under UV irradiation becomes blue) (530)

Simmons J, A Shetland dye book, Lerwick :Shetland Times, 1985,
Brief descriptions, local names and recipes are given for 28 plant dyes in Shetland including Ochrolechia tartarea (korkalit), three weeks fermentation with urine followed by making into cakes with lime and drying in peat smoke (this was done on Foula). Parmelia parientina gives a lilac dye by urine fermentation, purple when used with chrome mordanted wool

Stewart G, Curiosities of Glasgow citizenship, Glasgow : Maclehose, 1881,
The early history of cudbear manufacture by George Macintosh of Dunchattan is described.

Tassart C L, Les matieres colorantes, , 1890,
In a chapter about Orseille, the different species are described, the chemical studies of Robiquet (1829) and others (Frezon,Stenhouse), and the recipe for French purple of Guinon, Marnas and Bonnet

Taylor G W, Ancient textile dyes, Chemistry in Britain, 1990, 1155-1158
Visible spectra (in methanol) were determined of lichen purple samples from the Vindolanda site, 19th century orchil and 20th century Ochrolechia tartarea.

Taylor G W and Walton P, Modern dyeings from Lichen Purples, Dyes on historical and archaeological textiles, 1983, 2, 14
modern dyeings from lichen purples

Tievant P, Historique, usages des teintures aux lichens, Université de Paris I, UER D'art plastique, Thèse de Doctorat de 3ème cycle, 1979,
A description of the history, the lichens and dyeing methods for orchil, cudbear, persio, tournesol, litmus and parelle. 88 references

Wallert A, Fluorescent assay of quinone, lichen and redwood dyestuffs, Studies in Conservation, 1986, 31(4), 145-155
A brief section describes lichen dyes, mainly orcein, with 3 references

Westring D M, Essais sur la propriété tinctoriale de plusiers espèces de lichen qui croissent naturellement en Suède, et sur les couleurs qu'ils communiquent aux lainages et à la soie, Annales de Chimie, Paris, 1792, 15, 267-297
see Mairet

Zulkowski K and Peters K, , Monatsch Chemie, 1890, 11, 227

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